Sankhya and Yoga Philosophy Part Two

Thus the SANKHYA and YOGA system presented the problem, and showed the WAY OUT, with their corresponding disciplines.

The SANKHYA system is incorrectly accused of not accepting God in its system, and thereby some call it as NIRISHWARA SANKHYA.

That is Godless Sankhya.

It is not so.

An unbiased, and undistorted view of it, clearly indicates the concept of Ishwara-God, in its text called SANKHYA KARIKA 3.55-57.

In it, the all-knowing and all capable Ishwara-God, vivifies, activates and directs the inert PRAKRITI to proceed in its movements towards a creation.

This is so done, by the presence and bearing of PURUSHA upon PRAKRITI.

Thus Ishwara is axiomatic in its scheme.

Furthermore an inert PRAKRITI-MATTER, not possessing intelligence, cannot proceed intelligently for the benefit of man, and lead him towards enlightenment.

Hence Ishwara is acknowledged in its scheme of things.

Also another great error has been projected upon the Sankhya system.

And that is the notion of many PURUSHAS.

Such a notion is absurd.

There is only ONE PURUSHA, but many JIVAS-individuals.

There are as many JIVAS, as there are many minds.

Each JIVA-individual is associated with its own mind.

When this association goes away, then the JIVA character is no more, and once again one reverts back to one’s true nature as the PURUSHA.

There can be a million reflected suns, but the original SUN is one and the same.

This is the ONE PURUSHA of the Sankhyas.

But there can be many individuals, who may have realised their PURUSHA nature, at any given time in the Universe.

In the Sankhya Karika, these persons are referred to as ‘JNATA PURUSHA’; the ones who have realised their PURUSHA nature.

Which is one, and the SAME for all bonded individuals.

Bonded individuals are many; but the liberated state termed as PURUSHA is one.


That which is self-complete, and full, and currently abiding in the body apparatus.

The problem is for the JIVAS-individuals, not for the PURUSHA.

Hence creation and its process is explained.

The WAY OUT OF CREATION is also explained.

This is one track. PRAKRITI.

What is it?

Its existence is only inferred.

The manifest, visible CREATION indicates its unmanifest, invisible potential state, prior to manifest creation.

This potential state is what is termed as PRAKRITI.


It is an active dormant state.

Unknown, and Unknowable. But is the seed state of creation and for creation.

When the equilibrium of the three GUNAS in PRAKRITI is disturbed, creation is on the way.

In Sankhya PRAKRITI is the MATERIAL CAUSE for creation.

While PURUSHA, is the efficient or intelligent cause for creation.

Thus the two tracks.

But no-one knows what this PRAKRITI is.

Its existence is inferred from its effects.

It’s a potential seed-state condition of the universe.

Hence it is a POTENTIAL ENERGY or a store-house of potential energy.

Thus we come to a momentous comparison.

This is what Advaita Vedanta talks of as MAYA SHAKTI-the energy of MAYA.

Which abides in BRAHMAN.

And is the material cause for creation.

Thus BRAHMAN is the VIVARTA UPADANA KARANA for creation.


Hence one of the two parallel tracks has converged as energy into the other track, which is Brahman, and which is its locus.

Thus two tracks are described and discerned from one point of view, namely Sankhya which accommodates PRAKRITI with a distinct status.

The Bhagavad Gita alludes to this distinct status in chapter Xlll verses 19-23 and chapter Vll verses 4 and 5.


Exist together without any beginning from time immemorial.

One is my real nature.

The other is my other-nature says Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita.

While in Advaita Vedanta only one track is mentioned from a different point of view, wherein PRAKRITI is considered as a POTENTIAL ENERGY which has its locus in Brahman.

Hence, they are speaking the same language, but from different standpoints.

But, in the Hindu system, they have a habit of distorting and ridiculing each other and projecting one’s own doctrine as correct and all else false.

Hence they fail to see the Truth, either in themselves or in others.

Buddha’s teaching is a classic example of deliberate distortion in India.

Buddhism was the religion of India for a thousand years, before it was sent packing out of India by vested interests.